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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Workbook for Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Sharps Injury Prevention Program. 2008

Prüss-Üstün A, Rapiti E, Hutin Y. Sharps injuries: global burden of disease from sharps injuries to health-care workers. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003 (WHO Environmental Burden of Disease Series, No. 3).

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). NIOSH Alert: Preventing Needlestick Injuries in Health Care Settings, 1999, Publication No. 2000-108.

Prüss-Üstün A, Rapiti E, Hutin Y. Estimation of the Global Burden of Disease attributable to Contaminated Sharps Injuries Among Health-Care Workers. Am J Ind Med 2005;48:482-490

Sepkowitz KA. Occupationally Acquired Infections in Health Care Workers. Part II. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125:917–928

Jagger J, Balon M. EPINet Report: Blood and Body Fluid Exposures to Skin and Mucous Membranes. Adv Exposure Prev. 1995;1(2):1-9.

Jagger J, Bentley M. Injuries from Vascular Access Devices: High Risk and Preventable. J Infusion Nursing 1997;20(6 Suppl.):S33-9

Rapiti E, Prüss-Üstün A, Hutin Y. Sharps injuries: assessing the burden of disease from sharps injuries to health-care workers at national and local levels. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2005. (WHO Environmental Burden of Disease Series, No. 11).

Jagger, J., and Perry, J.: “Comparison of EPINet Data for 1993 and 2001 Show Marked Decline in Needlestick Injury Rates,” Advances in Exposure Prevention. 6(3):25-27, 2003.

Perry J, Parker G, Jagger J. EPINet Report: 2003 Percutaneous Injury Rates. Advances in Exposure Prevention 2003;7:42-45

Fisman DN, Harris AD, Sorock GS, Mittleman MA. Sharps-Related Injuries in Health Care Workers: A Case-Crossover Study. Am J Med. 2003;114(8):688-694

Perry J, Parker G, Jagger J. EPInet Report: 2001 Percutaneous Injury Rates. Advances in Exposure Prevention, 2003;6(3)

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Wilburn SQ. Needlestick and Sharps Injury Prevention. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 2004;9(3):5

Langgartner J, Audebert F, Schölmerich J, Glück T. Dengue Virus Infection Transmitted by Needle Stick Injury. J Infect. 2002 May;44(4): 269-270

WHO. Hepatitis B Fact sheet No 204. Revised August 2008. Accessed January 2011

Hepatitis B Foundation. Hepatitis B Fast Facts Everything you need to know in 2 minutes or less! Accessed January 2011.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Hepatitis B FAQs for Health Professionals. Accessed January 2011.

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Liaw YF. HBeAg seroconversion as an important end point in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Hepatol Int. 2009;3:425-433

Hofmann F, Kralj N, Beie M. Needle Stick Injuries in Health Care - Frequency, Causes und Preventive Strategies. Gesundheitswesen 2002; 64(5):259-266

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Exposure to Blood, What Healthcare Personnel Need to Know. 2003

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. MMWR 1998;47:1-39

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 [Perry J, Jagger J. Healthcare Worker Blood Exposure Risk: Correcting Some Outdated Statistics. Advances in Exposure Prevention. 2003;6(3)28-31

Wicker S, Jung J, Allwinn R, Gottschalk R, Rabenau HF. Prevalence and prevention of needlestick injuries among health care workers in a German university hospital. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2008;81: 347-354

Alvarado F, Panlilio A, Cardo D, NaSH Surveillance Group. Percutaneous injury reporting in U.S. hospitals, 1998. In: Program and Abstracts of the 4th Decennial International Conference on Nosocomial and Healthcare-Associated Infections. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Abstract P-S2-38

Trim JC, Elliott TSJ. A review of sharp injuries and preventative strategies. J Hosp Infect 2003;53:237-242

 [33] Mangione CM, Gerberding JL, Cummings SR. Occupational Exposure to HIV: Frequency and Rates of Underreporting of Percutaneous and Mucocutaneous Exposures by Medical Housestaff. Am J Med 1991;90:85-90

Panlilio AL, Orelien JG, Srivastava PU, Jagger J, Cohn RD, Carco DM, the NaSH Surveillance Group; the EPINet Data Sharing Network. Estimate of the annual number of percutaneous injuries among hospital-based healthcare workers in the United States, 1997-1998. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2004;25(7):556-562

Henry K, Campbell S. Needlestick/sharps injuries and HIV exposure among health care workers. National estimates based on a survey of U.S. hospitals. Minn Med. 1995;78(11):41-44

Godfrey K. Sharp Practice. Nursing Times 2001; 97(2):22-24 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11954100

Hatcher IB. Reducing Sharps Injuries Among Health Care Workers: A Sharps Container Quality Improvement Project. Jt Comm J Qual Improv 2002;28(7):410-414

National Health Service for Scotland (NHS Scotland). Needlestick Injuries: Sharpen Your Awareness. Report of the Short Life Working Group on Needlestick Injuries in the NHS Scotland. Edinburgh: National Health Services for Scotland:2001.

Tan L, Hawk JC, Sterling ML. Report of the Council Scientific Affairs: Preventing Needlestick Injuries in Health Care Settings. Arch Intern Med 2001;161(7):929-936 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11295955

Adams D, Elliott TSJ. Impact of safety needle devices on occupationally acquired needlestick injuries: a four-year prospective study. J Hosp Infect 2006;64:50-55

Jagger J, Bentley MB. EPINet Report: Disposal-Related Sharp-Object Injuries. Adv Exposure Prev. 1995;1(5):1-2,6-7-11

Trim JC, Adams D, Elliott TSJ. Healthcare workers‘ knowledge of inoculation injuries and glove use. Br J Nurs 2003;12(4):215-221

Jagger J, Perry J, Gomaa A, Kornblatt Phillips E. The impact of US policies to protect healthcare workers from bloodborne pathogens: the critical role of safety-engineered devices. J Infect Public Health 2008; 1:62–71

Tuma S and Sepkowitz KA. Efficacy of safety-engineered device implementation in the prevention of percutaneous injuries: a review of published studies. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42(8):1159-1170

 Tosini W, Ciotti C, Goyer F, Lolom I, L‘Hériteau F, Abiteboul D, Pellissier G, Bouvet E. Needlestick Injury Rates According to Different Types of Safety-Engineered Devices: Results of a French Multicenter Study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010; 31(4):402-407

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